From Truth to Reconciliation:
Redefining Archaeology in Ontario
November 17th - 19th, 2017
Brantford, Ontario
Symposium Abstracts
Symposium Abstracts
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Mackenzie Armstrong (Trent University)
Digital Comparative Collections: The Solution to In-field Resources?
Session: Contributed Papers
Nov. 6th - 9:20 - Bell Room
Digital Archaeology has come a long way in the past decade, both as an independent study and as a tool for archaeologists in traditional areas of Indigenous and Settler Archaeology. It is has become a way to share, organize, and contribute data to a greater understanding of the past as a benefit to an archaeologists’ peers, indigenous communities, and the general public. My research, examines the issues surrounding subjectivity in lithic analysis, the transmission of knowledge between experienced and less experienced archaeologists, and the use of technology as an instrument and potential solution to current gaps in training and knowledge among less experienced archaeologists. The use of digital comparative collections can provide immediate knowledge in the field or in the lab, and is an ideal way to improve the resources we have, promoting education, sharing archaeological knowledge, and setting a tone for similar archaeological endeavours, without the need to excavate.
Matthew Beaudoin (TMHC)
What is Pre-Contact? Thinking Through Non-Diagnostic Lithic Scatters
Session: Not Terminal: The Archaeology of Indigenous Peoples After the Arrival of Europeans
Nov. 5th - 1:20 - Grand Ballroom
Despite contributing to the vast majority of archaeological sites identified in Ontario, non-diagnostic lithic scatters and find spots are under-theorized within much of the literature. One of the dominant underlying assumptions of these types of sites is that they are 'Pre-Contact'. This paper deconstructs some of the presumptions that are being made with non-diagnostic lithic scatters, and considers the possibility that they could also be considered to be 'Post-Contact'.
Matthew Beaudoin
Not terminal: The Archaeology of Indigenous Peoples After the Arrival of Europeans
- 12:00 -
The conventional archaeological practice in Ontario is to use the date A.D. 1650 as an interpretive fracture point based on the arrival of Europeans in the Great Lakes region. Sites that pre-date A.D. 1650 are associated with Indigenous people, whereas sites that post-date A.D. 1650 are predominantly associated with peoples of European descent. There are recognized Indigenous sites that post-date A.D. 1650; however, the closer in time we come to the present day the greater the presence of European sites. This creates an archaeological record in which Indigenous peoples are virtually absent in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. The papers in this session are a consideration of various facets of this convention to discuss the unintended consequences of this practice and provide examples and discussions of how it may be re-considered.
Meagan Brooks (MTCS)
Archaeological Collections in Museums: Legislation, Guidance and Ontario’s Culture Strategy
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 1:40 - Gretzky Room
As part of Ontario’s Culture Strategy, the government is committed to improving the conservation of collections from archaeological sites in Ontario so that current and future generations can learn about and understand the past. However, archaeologists and Indigenous communities often face special challenges regarding archaeological collections. This presentation, given by the Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport, will provide archaeologists and Indigenous communities information about: • legislation in Ontario regarding archaeological collections • recent collections work by the MTCS Archaeology Unit • Ontario’s Culture Strategy and the Archaeological Collections Framework The presentation will also include breakout groups and round tables to ensure that your ideas and opinions can inform work on the Archaeological Collections Framework.
Meagan Brooks (MTCS)
What the heck is a MOOC? Archaeological Professional Development for all licence levels, budgets and interests.
Session: Contributed Papers
Nov. 6th - 9:40 - Bell Room
No matter what profession, career, hobby, or “thing” you are into, continuing to learn about and practice at it is essential. Learning keeps us engaged and current. This improves our impact on the resources we work with and the world around us. Without continuing to expand horizons and learn new skills, it’s hard for anyone to stay successful, move forward in their career, or get started in a new direction. Unfortunately, life is full of other obligations. Finding the time and money to follow traditional forms of education can be difficult. However, whether you are practicing as an avocational, working towards a career in CRM, or maintaining a successful professional career, there are multiple options for continuing to develop archaeological skills and knowledge, while still working and meeting family obligations. This presentation will examine what “professional development” actually means, introduce forms of non-traditional education, and provide examples of real opportunities for all interest levels. And yes, we will find out what the heck a MOOC is.
Meagan Brooks (MTCS) and Heather Kerr (MTCS)
Submerged Archaeological Resources and the Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport
Session: Developing Regulations and Standards for Non-Shipwrek Cultural Resources in Ontario
Nov. 6th - 10:40 - Hillier Room
The Ontario Heritage Act enables the Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport (MTCS) to determine policies, priorities and programs for the conservation, protection and preservation of the heritage of Ontario. The Archaeology Program Unit (APU) works to fulfill this mandate by regulating archaeology in the province through licensing, reviewing archaeological activity and the management of related data. This presentation will demonstrate how the APU regulates submerged archaeological resources in particular and look at options for the future.
Meagan Brooks
Roundtable Discussion
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 2:20 - Gretzky Room
Roundtable Discussion
Craig N. Cipolla (Royal Ontario Museum), James Quinn (Mohegan Tribal Historic Preservation Office), Jay Levy (Mohegan Tribal Historic Preservation Office)
In Search of Survivance Stories: Eighteenth-Century Households on the Mohegan Reservation
Session: Not Terminal: The Archaeology of Indigenous Peoples After the Arrival of Europeans
Nov. 5th - 2:20 - Grand Ballroom
For over twenty years, the Mohegan Archaeological Field School (Mohegan Reservation, Uncasville, CT) has combined Indigenous knowledge, sensitivities, interests, and needs with archaeological perspectives. The current iteration of the field school works specifically to bring Mohegan knowledge and archaeology into critical dialogue with academic research and teaching, focusing on the excavation and analysis of archaeological sites from the 18th and early 19th centuries. First, this paper emphasizes recent work on a late 18th-century household, including findings related to architecture, layout, consumption patterns, food remains, and potential spiritual practices. Second, this paper discusses our collaborative methodologies for research and teaching. The field school brings together professional archaeologists and students of diverse backgrounds through the Institute for Field Research. This dimension of the work directly informs how we see and interpret household assemblages. We outline the strengths of this approach in terms of pedagogy and a general commitment to decolonizing archaeological practice.
Caitlin Coleman (ASI )
Best Practices for Archaeological Collections: A Cultural Resource Management Perspective
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 11:00 - Gretzky Room
As a large archaeological and cultural heritage consulting firm in Ontario, ASI has unique curatorial and collections issues that are distinct from those of government funded or non-profit enterprises. We work on the “front line” of collection creation in our province, putting us in an ideal position to develop and implement new best practices for artifact care. I will provide two case studies of successful collections management projects we have undertaken; one in which best practices were in place from the beginning, and a second where they were used to rehabilitate a legacy collection. First, I will discuss a large scale energy project where we built into the original budget the cost of housing artifacts at Sustainable Archaeology. Involving clients in final curatorial decisions is an ideal, yet rare, situation in consulting work. Secondly, I will discuss a large scale pro-bono project we have undertaken in collaboration with the OAS to reorganize, rebox, and document Charlie Garrad’s significant collection of Tionontati (Petun) artifacts. These two examples show how consulting archaeology can work hand in hand with clients, researchers, avocational archaeologists, and community organizations to best care for our collections.
James Conolly
Historic Waterways and Wetlands in the Kawarthas: Shifting Baselines and Ongoing Impact of Settler Colonialism
Session: Developing Regulations and Standards for Non-Shipwrek Cultural Resources in Ontario
Nov. 6th - 9:40 - Hillier Room
In this paper I offer the results of a recently completed project that has modelled the changing configuration of the upper Kawartha Lakes over the duration of the Holocene. The results of this work have enabled estimates of the changing spatial distribution and size of historic wetland habitats across the Kawarthas. I will review this data, but focus more specifically on the significant impact that dams and water controls had on historic ecosystems that had been a primary source of subsistence for the Michi Saagiig Anishinaabeg. I will contextualize this within a shifting baselines approach that addresses ongoing resistance by recent settlers to expanding wild rice habitats across this region.
Session: People of Curve Lake First Nation - Gretzky Room
Inaakonigewin Andaadad Aki: Michi Saagiig Treaties. Defining Relationships between Peoples
Session: Contributed Papers
Nov. 5th - 3:00 - Bell Room
There is generally a lack of understanding regarding the Treaties in Ontario – who signed them and when, where, and what were the original agreements made between the Crown, and later colonial governments, and the First Nations of Turtle Island? More importantly what were the responsibilities of each of the parties entering into such agreements? Curve Lake First Nation is pleased to announce the release of our second video in a series dedicated to offering education to the wider public about our people and our lands: Inaakonigewin Andaadad Aki: Michi Saagiig Treaties. This documentary looks at the various treaties the Michi Saagiig (Mississauga) participated in between 1781 and 1923. There are 46 treaties that cover the lands in Ontario, eighteen of which include the Michi Saagiig.
Explore the early history of the initial agreements made between the Crown (and later Canada) and the Michi Saagiig. Learn about the generosity and kindness of a nation of Indigenous people who based these political relationships upon concepts of balance, harmony, and the sharing of lands and resources in the spirit of reciprocity. The Michi Saagiig have always upheld the integrity and responsibilities of the treaties as living breathing agreements – the most sacred of covenants between nations. Colonial governments, and later their federal and provincial counterparts did not always abide by the directions as set out by these treaties. The residual impacts from the controversial Williams Treaties, which covers approximately 13 million acres of present day Ontario, are still being felt today.
In Ontario, we are all treaty people. This documentary reminds us all about what that means.
Joshua Dent and Neal Ferris
When it isn’t about Archaeology: Indigenous Heritage, Treaty Rights and Archaeology as Accommodation In Law
Session: Archaeology in the Age of UNDRIP and the TRC
Nov. 5th - 11:20 - Grand Ballroom
While Canadian jurisprudence has yet to directly address the legal conception of the archaeological heritage in this country, it has nonetheless consistently signaled a very clear relationship between archaeology, the Crown, and Indigenous Treaty Rights. However, the Supreme Court of Canada has repeatedly signaled that archaeological conservation requirements imposed by the State on developers do address the Crown’s duty to accommodate First Nations’ Treaty Rights, most recently in the 2017 Chippewas of the Thames First Nation v. Enbridge Pipelines Inc. decision. This would assert that not only is Indigenous heritage linked with Indigenous rights, but that archaeology is a means, however imperfect, of accommodating impacts to those rights. This emerging body of law framing what archaeology represents in Canadian society today underscores as critical the need for the State to ensure archaeological policy and practice is effective and effectively accommodates the Crown’s obligations to Indigenous rights within societal development needs and pressures. We provide here a review of the logics emerging from these decisions and their implications for archaeological governance in Ontario, and the role of First Nations in that governance, going forward.
Joshua Dent
The Research Portal
Session: Poster Presentation
Nov. 5th - 1:00 - Pauline Johnson Room
The Research Portal is a pilot project, part of a Mitacs Elevate Postdoctoral Fellowship undertaken by Joshua Dent with the support of Timmins Martelle Heritage Consultants Inc. and Sustainable Archaeology @ Western. The service works with communities and organizations to identify research objectives and outline potential research projects for posting on a web-based listing. The listing is then made accessible to interested academic departments to encourage graduate/advanced undergraduate/faculty researchers to undertake research partnerships capable of meeting both academic and community research objectives. The Portal will also provide a means of communicating outcomes of these projects to wider audience through the curation of outcome-related webpages. Details of the service are presented in this poster and information will be provided to interested participants, both academics and non-academics. The Portal is currently in testing through Fall 2008.
Megan DeVries, Mark LaForme, and Andrew Hinshelwood
Cultural Stewardship Through In-Field Participation: A Case Study of the MNCFN’s Field Liaison Representative Program
Session: Archaeology in the Age of UNDRIP and the TRC
Nov. 5th - 10:20 - Grand Ballroom
The Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation [MNCFN] have always been active stewards of their traditional territory, including both the sustainability of its natural environmental and the maintenance of their cultural patrimony. That stewardship role was entrenched in the treaties signed between the MNCFN and the Crown during the 18th and 19th centuries. The MNCFN’s Aboriginal and Treaty rights give rise to the Crown’s duty to consult and accommodate. Throughout modern times, the MNCFN have always taken measures to ensure that they can maintain their stewardship role. The foundation and implementation of the Field Liaison Representative program, in which band members participate in archaeological assessments undertaken within the MNCFN’s treaty territory, is one of the methods through which the Nation maintains is cultural patrimony. Although the MNCFN does not require the Crown or the United Nations to grant them a stewardship role, the TRC Calls to Action and UNDRIP can be effectively utilized by the Nation to exercise that stewardship more successfully. The spirit of these initiatives allows for the perfect setting in which the MNCFN can present elevated requirements for archaeological assessments, which satisfy the Nation’s own standards for maintaining their cultural patrimony.
Dena Doroszenko (OHT), Beth Hanna (OHT), Sean Fraser (OHT)
Protecting Sacred sites in Ontario
Session: Archaeology in the Age of UNDRIP and the TRC
Nov. 5th - 11:00 - Grand Ballroom
Indigenous spirituality is rooted in the land and with the bones of the Ancestors. Sacred sites often provide the physical foundation for Indigenous peoples' creation stories, the thread that connects each new generation to their Ancestors, their culture and identity. This includes natural areas of special spiritual significance and burial places. This paper will elaborate on the Trust’s experience building relationships with Indigenous nations to protect sacred sites. We will focus on the 2013 reburial of Wendat Ancestors at Thonnakona in Vaughan and our partnership with the Chippewas of Nawash to protect the sacred landscape of Nochemowenaing on the Bruce Peninsula.
Neal Ferris and Joshua Dent
When it isn’t about Archaeology: Archaeological Practice as Accommodation
Session: Archaeology in the Age of UNDRIP and the TRC
Nov. 5th - 11:40 - Grand Ballroom
The emerging body of law articulated from Supreme Court decisions such as the 2017 Chippewas of the Thames First Nation v. Enbridge Pipelines Inc. clearly indicate that in the mind of the SCC, and thus in Canadian law, archaeological conservation within land use management is about the Crown’s obligation to balance and address Indigenous rights to the material heritage, and possibly vestige title inherent in the archaeological record. As such we argue that the conservation of archaeology in Canada is no longer about the “cultural, educational or scientific values” embodied in the record, or the interests and agendas of archaeologists and what we value and study about that material past. The implications of these legal framings of archaeology underscores as critical the need for the State to ensure archaeological policy and practice accommodates the Crown’s obligations to Indigenous rights within societal development-based needs and pressures. This clearly means First Nations will increasingly play a critical role in the decision-making and logics of these conservation processes. Moreover, archaeologists will increasingly need to recognize that their role in this process is one of servant and technical guide, working collaboratively to translate the material traces and object classifications of the record we know well (which are only really of relevance to us) into the values and meanings relevant as heritage of places and Indigenous rights affected by Crown regulated development processes. The implications this has for Canadian and Ontario archaeological practice writ large are discussed here.
Jacqueline Fisher and William Fitzgerald
The River Mouth Speaks: European Traders in Saugeen Ojibway Territory
Session: Not Terminal: The Archaeology of Indigenous Peoples After the Arrival of Europeans
Nov. 5th - 2:00 - Grand Ballroom
Fisher Archaeological Consulting – in collaboration with the Saugeen Ojibway Nation, conducted Stage 3 and limited Stage 4 excavations at the stratified multi-component BdHi-2 site in Southampton at the embouchure of the Saugeen River into Lake Huron’s eastern shore. The site had been missed by a previous archaeological assessment, while the subsequent re-assessment identified cultural components from the Middle Woodland period through the late-19th century. This particular section of the river mouth was not ceded by the Saugeen Ojibway to the British Crown until 1854. Regionally unique and of particular significance is an assemblage of European-manufactured items that includes glass beads, iconographic brass finger rings, silver earrings, and unused gun flints. Collectively, the artifacts represent a very distinctive trade assemblage recovered from European and Indigenous sites across the Northeast that are securely-dated to the middle of the 18th century. The mouth of the Saugeen River has been a venue for the importation and distribution of foreign commodities from the Middle Woodland period onward. That the mid-18th century European assemblage represents the left-behind debris of mid-18th century trading activity is bolstered by early-19th century accounts of European “travelling salesmen” at the river mouth.
William Fitzgerald
Ceded but not Abandoned: A Heads-up for Compliance Archaeologists and MTCS
Session: Not Terminal: The Archaeology of Indigenous Peoples After the Arrival of Europeans
Nov. 5th - 1:40 - Grand Ballroom
A series of treaties between 1818 and 1861 ceded almost the entirety of the traditional territory of the Saugeen Ojibway Nation (SONTT) to the British Crown. Lands that were “encouraged” to be surrendered for Euro-Canadian purchase and occupation should not, however, be considered to have become Aboriginal “no-go” zones. In SONTT the continuation of traditional Aboriginal pursuits are documented within “surrendered” lands well into the 20th century. Are there archaeological implications? Archaeologically-identified sites composed of later-19th or early-20th century Euro-Canadian artifacts in ceded lands should not automatically be assigned Euro-Canadian ethnicity or purpose nor be summarily dismissed as lacking “cultural heritage value or interest”. Enhanced historical investigation and earnest Aboriginal engagement as mandatory components of MTCS Stage 1 background studies may reveal the persistence of Aboriginal cultural activities – traditional and non-traditional, in areas that had been previously “surrendered”.
Paul General
Archaeology in the Age of UNDRIP and TRC
Session: Archaeology in the Age of UNDRIP and the TRC
Nov. 5th - 9:00 - Grand Ballroom
It has been my experience that Six Nations has been researched by Archaeologists, Anthropologists and Ethnologists for at least a century and a half. My family has certainly been used as informants for at least that long working with noted academics such as William Fenton and A. Marie Simony to name just two of many. Over my lifetime I have been aware of people visiting from away, coming to see my great grandfather, grandmother and mother. I would later find myself working with many university researchers, academics and Archaeologists. I have witnessed, in my opinion, to be important changes in how these disciplines have altered their attitude and practice. Has UNDRIP and TRC helped or hindered the long term relationship between academia and First Nations, are going in a good direction and where is the finish line.
Richard Gerrard (City of Toronto)
Learning from Legacy Collections
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 9:20 - Gretzky Room
In an ideal world, all archaeological collections would have a perfect chain-of-curation from their day of excavation until someone wanted to draw them from a repository. Unfortunately for many collections this is not the case. Separation of objects from their contexts, from their documentation, or from each other is all too common a situation one discovers when trying to work with a collection. Sometimes these imperfections can be remediated through curatorial research, and the application of sound long-term collections management policies and practices. This paper will examine some on-going projects at the City of Toronto’s Museums and Heritage Services unit to improve the state of the legacy.
Stacey Girling-Christie (Canadian Museum of History)
Managing CMH Archaeological Collections: A Challenging Carousel
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 10:20 - Gretzky Room
The Canadian Museum of History, a Federal Crown corporation, houses national and international archaeological collections. Since the late 1800’s, the time of the Geological Survey of Canada, we have undergone many internal re-organizations, name changes and physical re-locations. The one main constant is the collection. Storage and curation of this dynamic assemblage of 3.5 million specimens (and counting) is challenging and at times a bit daunting. This paper will focus on some of the issues and accessibility to this unique collection.
Bonnie Glencross and Gary Warrick
European-Made Glass Beads: Collection Techniques and Implications for Dating Sites
Session: Contributed Papers
Nov. 6th - 9:00 - Bell Room
Current guidelines for consulting archaeologists in Ontario suggest, when artifacts less than 6 mm in size are anticipated, that archaeologists screen soils using 3 mm mesh or water screen. While the use of these fine screen recovery methods are widely utilized, there has been little critical evaluation of the productivity and results from applying a fine screen strategy. Beads recovered from Ahatsistari (BeGx-76), Penetanguishene are used as a case study to demonstrate what can be gained from employing a fine screen strategy. Samples of Ahatsistari beads that have been hand excavated without the use of screens, hand excavated using 3mm mesh, and water screened are compared. The impact of these different methods on sample richness and density calculations, and their implications for characterizing cultural activities and dating sites will be discussed.
Eric Guiry, Suzanne Needs-Howarth, Alicia L. Hawkins, and Trevor Orchard
Archaeological fish bone chemistry can help understand environmental changes in Ontario
Session: Poster Presentation
Nov. 5th - 1:00 - Pauline Johnson Room
Isotopic analyses of archaeological fish remains can detect changes in past environmental conditions. This long-term perspective on environmental change can, in turn, be useful for conservation research aimed at managing and restoring ecosystems impacted by human activities. This study presents stable nitrogen isotope compositions of archaeological bone collagen from over 500 fish as a proxy measure for long-term (A.D. 1000-1900) changes in Lake Ontario’s nutrient cycle and trophic structure. Results show a significant shift in the stable nitrogen isotope values of multiple fish taxa, consistent with a change in the state of the freshwater nitrogen cycle of Lake Ontario during the early nineteenth century. This shift is likely linked to increases in the intensity of human activities, such as large scale deforestation and agriculture, across the wider Lake Ontario drainage basin. These findings provide fresh insights into the broader environmental context of the impact of European settlement in the region.
Cassandra Hamilton (TRCA)
The Sébastien Site: An Examination of a Middle Ontario Iroquoian Village
Session: Contributed Papers
Nov. 6th - 10:20 - Bell Room
The Sébastien Site (AlGs-341), an ancestral Wendat village site dating to the Middle Ontario Iroquoian period, has been partially excavated through education and outreach programs since 2012 in conjunction with the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (TRCA). During that time secondary students attending the Boyd Archaeological Field School and elementary and secondary students from the Durham Catholic District School Board have participated in archaeology curriculum at the Sébastien Site. To date, over 1,000 of students have hand excavated nearly 400 one metre units, recovering over 33,000 artifacts representing both the Uren and Middleport sub-stages (A.D. 1275-1325). While the educational opportunities at the Sébastien site continue and additional excavation is anticipated for the next five years, the following presentation aims to summarize the results of the first five field seasons situating the site within its regional archaeological context.
Alicia Hawkins, Jake Cousineau, and Kaitlyn Malleau
Weighing the evidence: An experiment in nested screening on contact period Iroquoian sites
Session: Poster Presentation
Nov. 5th - 1:00 - Pauline Johnson Room
It is generally acknowledged that current screening practices in Ontario result in recovery of only a sample of the artifacts within a deposit. As such, the Standards and Guidelines for Consultant archaeologists recommend use of finer mesh screen on contact period Woodland village sites. This poster presents the results of a nested screening experiment in which artifacts were recovered by hand sorting, and by water screening through 6.4, 3.2, and 1.6 mm mesh screen. Screened material was sorted under light and magnification in a laboratory, and the amount of time invested in sorting was recorded. We focus on the differences in the nature of the lithic, glass bead and zooarchaeological materials and consider the degree to which interpretations are significantly changed through additions of materials from fine meshed fractions.
Rick Hill
Restoring Indigenous Cultural Patrimony
Session: Archaeology in the Age of UNDRIP and the TRC
Nov. 5th - 9:40 - Grand Ballroom
The Haudenosaunee have asserted jurisdiction over their cultural patrimony as represented in archaeological discoveries and archaeological collections. The Standing Committee of repatriation has worked for over 20 years to develop policies and protocols to respond to the need to recovering what they consider to be their rightful patrimony. This presentation will explore new models of cooperative attitudes and efforts to help Indigenous Nations restore their cultural, spiritual and political connection to place based upon archaeological resources.
Jordan Jamieson (MNCFN), Sarah Clarke (ARA), Ayla Mykytey (NDA)
Mush Hole Archaeology
Session: Contributed Papers
Nov. 6th - 10:40 - Bell Room
In the spring of 2017 an interesting and timely archaeological project began to unfold on the grounds of the former Mohawk Institute Residential School at 184 Mohawk Street, Six Nations (Brantford). With limited funding and tight timelines, the volunteer-driven Reconciliation Project of the OAS was born. Engagement and participation in the project by field liaisons representing the Six Nations Eco-Centre, Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation and Haudenosaunee Development Institute, coupled with the efforts of archaeological volunteers, has arguably produced an arena for a fulsome and meaningful collaboration devoid of the usual pressures arising from development-driven archaeology in the commercial realm. Jordan and Sarah will reflect on their experiences doing archaeology at the Mush Hole thus far.
Scarlett Janusas
Search for the AVRO Arrow Models
Session: Developing Regulations and Standards for Non-Shipwrek Cultural Resources in Ontario
Nov. 6th - 11:00 - Hillier Room
On February 20, 1959, orders were given to destroy all the prototypes, data, and anything to do with AVRO Arrow, which at that time, was the most advanced fighter plane in the world, meant to intercept Soviet bombers. It was meant to be a long-range supersonic interceptor. Its first successful flight was completed on March 25th, 1958. On one day, 30,000 people connected with the building of this plane were let go from their jobs. The program stopped, all information was reportedly destroyed, and all that was left of the evidence of the plane were the pre-flight models. A total of nine pre-flight models were fired into Lake Ontario from Point Petre in Prince Edward County. While the search for evidence of these models has been initiated over 16 years by various groups and individuals, it was not until this year, 2017, under the support and initiative of the OEX Search and Recovery Group, that at one test tracking vehicle and very probably one of the models was found. This paper reports the search, the technology, the targets, and next steps in the program.
Louis Lesage (Nation Huronne-Wendat)
Huron-Wendat Archaeological Heritage: The Long Road to Ownership
Session: Archaeology in the Age of UNDRIP and the TRC
Nov. 5th - 10:40 - Grand Ballroom
The over 850 Huron-Wendat archaeological sites discovered in the last century probably represents the highest number of archaeological sites related to one First Nation in the country. Some scholars have spent their entire career digging, studying, comparing and interpreting this richness of artefacts, villages, camp sites, and ossuaries. Today, these treasures are exposed or “collected” in museums around the world, in universities, in government agencies and even in private archaeologists’ offices. Surprisingly, the Huron-Wendat Museum has very few of these artefacts. The federal and provincial legislation still controls the archaeological heritage of First Nations on behalf of all Canadians. In this country, heritage has a “collective value” and thus, governments are acting as “collections” managers for all Canadians. For the Huron-Wendat, this situation unfortunately represents the old colonialism and “parents-to-children” approach towards First Nations. Furthermore, this approach does not correspond to the contemporary UNDRIP and TRC statements proposed for Nation to Nation relations. Today, the Huron-Wendat Nation has to deal with: new archaeological discoveries, site protection, unearthing, exhumations, research collaborations, repatriation, reburials, etc. We want to play a major role in the appropriation of the ownership of our archaeological heritage and, thus, become agents of change in the country.
Stefanie Mackinnon
Artifact Curation in the Context of Decolonization
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 9:00 - Gretzky Room
In the light of the current paradigmatic shift in archaeology, it is necessary to bring to the discussion the care of artifacts. This presentation will begin by defining decolonization and emphasize the need for Public Archaeology and Social/Civic Engagement under this new paradigm. Consideration will be given to UNDRIP (United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples) and the TRC (Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada) and how this would influence the care of North American Indigenous artifacts. Guidelines will be presented for creating the ideal curatorial environment with the main objective of fair and culturally appropriate treatment of artifacts.
Scott Martin (Sustainable Archaeology)
The Stew Leslie Collection: Working with an Avocation Archaeologist’s Legacy Collection at Sustainable Archaeology McMaster
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 11:40 - Gretzky Room
In this contribution, I recount the opportunities afforded and challenges encountered in processing and reporting on the Stew Leslie Collection. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Stew Leslie was a dedicated Avocational Archaeologist from the Hamilton area and generated a collection of material from several sites in his work with the then Ontario Ministry of Culture and Recreation. Working closely with colleagues at the Ontario Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport, this archaeological Legacy Collection was transferred to Sustainable Archaeology McMaster in late 2016. Additional artefactual material and documentation was provided to SA McMaster in early 2017. In this process of working through this Collections Deposit, facility workflow procedure was tested, site identities were scrutinised and decades-old survey details and correspondence were rediscovered. This collection has offered additional information on some of our other holdings, has named ‘collectors’ at work in the area and has given up resources for new research and investigation.
Cathy McGirr (Bruce County Museum) and Doran Ritchie (Saugeen Ojibway Nation)
Museums & Indigenous Collections
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 10:40 - Gretzky Room
This presentation will focus on Bruce County Museum & Cultural Centre’s relationship with our First Nations communities in Bruce County and more specifically the role of the Museum as it relates to being the repository for First Nations archaeological collections. Examples of recent collections related transfers and studies working with all parties, Museum, First Nations and Archaeologists will be examined.
Brooks, Megan and Paula Whitlow
Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
- 12:00 -
Archaeological collections are often the only record of a community’s past. The rapid growth of development industry and varying collections practices among archaeologists in Ontario have left many collections in poor condition and inaccessible to the communities whose stories they tell. Finding practical, yet collaborative and respectful, strategies for archaeological collections management is imperative for both reconciliation efforts and the evolution of Ontario archaeology. Indigenous communist, archaeologists, museums professionals, and municipalities each provide care and accessibility for archaeological collections. This session seeks to highlight their individual strategies to foster a more collaborative collections management framework.
Tara Montague and Kayliegh Speirs (Rainy River First Nations, Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung Historical Centre)
Repatriation, Digitization, and Engagement: Addressing Challenges faced by First Nations Communities in Reclaiming their History
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 9:40 - Gretzky Room
Kay Nah Chi Wah Nung Historical Centre, the Place of the Long Sault, is an historically significant meeting place located along the banks of the Rainy River. Also known as Manitou Mounds, it is the largest concentration of known burial mounds in North America. For thousands of years, the people of the Rainy River First Nations have acted as caretakers of the river and the people who rest along its shores. Manitou Mounds is an Indigenous owned and operated world class facility which offers interpretive tours to visitors from around the world, allowing them the opportunity to learn about Ojibway traditions in an interactive and meaningful way. Kay Nah Chi Wa Nung shares with visitors the rich archeological history found along the Rainy River and houses a collection consisting of approximately 10,000 artifacts excavated from village sites near the mounds in the 1970’s. Currently, the Rainy River First Nations has undertaken the initiative to locate, document, and where appropriate, reclaim artifacts and culturally significant items. This discussion will focus on challenges faced by Indigenous communities attempting to reclaim past knowledge that has become strewn across North America. Specific topics include plans for facility upgrades to meet the need of the growing archaeological and ethnographic collections, the digitization of the collection and culturally sensitive objects, as well as ways to facilitate community engagement and access to collections.
Tynan Pringle (McMaster University)
Methods and Application of Core Scanning: Analytical Possibilities of the ITRAX Core Scanner in Ontario Archaeology
Session: Developing Regulations and Standards for Non-Shipwrek Cultural Resources in Ontario
Nov. 6th - 9:00 - Hillier Room
Paleolimnology has long provided a complimentary repertoire of methods to archaeology, allowing for environmental interpretations which offer context to human occupations. In recent decades, the application of ?m-scale core-logging devices have seen widespread use in paleolimnological investigations, yet, the archaeological potential of these devices remains considerably under-developed in the aquatic domain. In Ontario, the archaeological use of core scanners is void in the literature. Core scanners are non-destructive and cost-effective, rapidly providing superior chemical, optical, and geophysical data, as a comprehensive way to examine environmental change. They create new avenues for GIS integration, chemostratigraphic profiling, radiocarbon age modeling, and examining anthropogenic landscape changes. This is critically important when archaeological site integrity is concerned. Scanning sediment cores from water bodies adjacent to sensitive archaeological sites maximizes data yield in situations that do not permit open excavation. A scanned geochemical record of archaeologically significant aquatic systems is a valuable asset, readily paired with palynological datasets, but with vastly greater spatial resolution. This is especially pertinent where underwater archaeological sites are concerned. The chemical signals indicative of human occupation can revolutionize the mapping and identification of archaeological sites in submerged landscapes. This discussion will explore the methodology, technology, and potential that ?-XRF core scanners hold for underwater archaeology in Ontario.
Johanna Rowe (Heritage Professional) and Wendy Peterson (Michipicoten First Nation)
The Michipicoten First Nation Artefact Story – The Challenges of Coming Home
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 1:20 - Gretzky Room
A presentation on the challenges, collaborations and outcomes of our artefacts "coming home". In September 2015, Michipicoten First Nation held a sunrise ceremony and feast to honour the final journey of 40 boxes of archaeological artefacts that found their way home to the Wawa area. These pre-historic and historic objects represent a fascinating story full of discovery and challenge which continues today.
Elisabeth Servello and Scott McWilliam
The Sobering Cold Truth about Pukaskwa Pits
Session: Developing Regulations and Standards for Non-Shipwrek Cultural Resources in Ontario
Nov. 6th - 10:20 - Hillier Room
The sobering Cold Truth about Pukaskwa Pits, reflects the authors efforts to join the movement among progressive Ontario archaeologists efforts to both detoxify and demystify the Shield Archaic during the terminal woodland period. The writers suggest a utilitarian function for Pukaskwa Pits as thermal sinks and discuss how they relate to the Old Copper Culture, prehistoric copper mining, trade routes and Pictographs.
Lisa Sonnenburg (Stantec Consulting), Joe Boyce (McMaster University), Ashley Lemke (University of Texas at Arlington), and John O'Shea (University of Michigan)
Prehistoric Underwater Archaeology in the Great Lakes Region
Session: Developing Regulations and Standards for Non-Shipwrek Cultural Resources in Ontario
Nov. 6th - 11:40 - Hillier Room
For underwater archaeology, remote sensing and coring techniques are crucial for investigating archaeological potential. In the past decade, remote sensing techniques and paleoenvironmental reconstructions have more sophisticated at detecting these ephemeral sites in a challenging environment. Here, we will look at multiple techniques that can range from use in small shallow lakes to large open-water environments, and where future technologies can provide unique opportunities to explore these often neglected parts of the archaeological record.
Lisa Sonnenburg
Roundtable Discussion
Session: Developing Regulations and Standards for Non-Shipwrek Cultural Resources in Ontario
Nov. 6th - 11:40 - Hillier Room
With the absence of a dedicated underwater archaeologist for the province, and increasing demand for shoreline and waterfront development, we feel it is imperative that interested stakeholders get together to try and provide ideas and a timeline to get some preliminary standards and guidelines for marine archaeology in Ontario established. In order to begin the conversation, we are proposing three topics for discussion during the round table session: 1. Updates and feedback regarding the Marine Archaeology License, and how licensing should occur 2. Discussion on what standards and guidelines can and should be adopted for submerged cultural resources; do we model these based on the terrestrial guidelines, or should we purse a different path? 3. First Nations Involvement and Input into underwater resources-what issues should be addressed within any new standards and guidelines?
Elizabeth Sonnenburg
Developing Regulations and Standards for Non-Shipwreck Submerged Cultural Resources in Ontario
- 12:00 -
With the absence of a dedicated underwater archaeologist for the province, and increasing demand for shoreline and waterfront development, it is imperative that interested stakeholders get together to try and provide ideas and a timeline to get some preliminary standards and guidelines for marine archaeology in Ontario established. This is particularly important with respect to submerged cultural landscapes with potential Aboriginal and Euro-Canadian sites (e.g. fish weirs, submerged settlements and cultural landscapes, 20th century aviation crashes, etc.) that require a different approach than shipwreck archaeology, which is currently the main site-type focused on in Ontario (and worldwide). This is an issue that needs to be addressed so we can protect valuable cultural resources that don't fall under the existing terrestrial standards and guidelines-not only to guide archaeologists, but also for those who may be putting together RFPs for marine work to ensure that they are providing the necessary information as well as understanding what underwater work entrails.
Anne Taylor (Curve Lake First Nation)
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 11:20 - Gretzky Room
Eric Tourigny
Minimum Sample Sizes, Recovery Techniques and the Reporting of Animal Bones from Historic Period Assemblages
Session: Not Terminal: The Archaeology of Indigenous Peoples After the Arrival of Europeans
Nov. 5th - 3:20 - Grand Ballroom
An overview of Euro-Canadian faunal assemblages challenges the validity of faunal analyses that strictly adhere to Ontario Standards and Guidelines. Through its requirement to only identify 500 animal bone specimens, the S&Gs inadvertently suggest such a sample size is large enough to be representative of the archaeological deposit. Results indicate that sample sizes under 2,000 are insufficient to properly address one of the most fundamental zooarchaeological research questions: which animal species were exploited by past site occupants? Fish are particularly underrepresented and links are made to excavation strategies and their effects on the data being generated. New standards for minimum sample sizes and excavation strategies are recommended based on analyses examining the extent to which assemblages have been sampled to redundancy.
Gary Warrick (WLU)
Indigenous Land Use in the Grand River Watershed 1800 -1851
Session: Not Terminal: The Archaeology of Indigenous Peoples After the Arrival of Europeans
Nov. 5th - 3:00 - Grand Ballroom
The paper will examine Indigenous settlement and land use (i.e., hunting, fishing, gathering, farming) patterns in the Grand River region in the 19th century, prior to forced relocation to reserves, based on archaeological and historical evidence. An argument will be made for continuity in Indigenous land use practices and settlement pattern from pre-European times to the middle of the 19th century in the Grand River valley.
Gary Warrick and Paul General
Archaeology in the Age of UNDRIP and the TRC
- 12:00 -
The relationship between Indigenous peoples and archaeologists has changed dramatically over the last 15 years. The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was endorsed by Canada in 2010 and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) Calls to Action were released in 2015. Both documents acknowledge that Indigenous peoples have inherent rights to the control of their archaeological heritage, but heritage legislation has not been revised to recognize such rights. In Ontario, archaeologists are doing their best to work collaboratively with Indigenous peoples and honour UNDRIP and the TRC Calls to Action, while at the same time working in accordance with provincial laws. This session features presentations from both Indigenous peoples and archaeologists about how archaeology in Ontario should be regulated and practiced in the new age of UNDRIP and the TRC.
Paula Whitlow (Woodland Cultural Centre)
Session: Archaeological Collections: Strategies, Solutions and Benefits
Nov. 5th - 8:40 - Gretzky Room
Carolan Wood (University of Toronto Mississauga), Jubal Jamieson (Haudenosaunee Development Institute)
Teaching Ethics and Building Alliances in the classroom through Indigenous ways of knowing
Session: Archaeology in the Age of UNDRIP and the TRC
Nov. 5th - 9:20 - Grand Ballroom
Our talk will address relationship building between Indigenous archaeological monitors, and future bio/archaeologists that begin with academia. Given the Truth and Reconciliation commissioner’s call to action with respect to “education for reconciliation” - as teachers, we have the responsibility to contribute to the process of decolonizing the academy and bio/archaeology, and ensure ethics figure prominently in our classrooms. To that end, the authenticity of such endeavors is ensured by the participation of Indigenous educators, which is inclusive, and in our experience, provides a most stimulating and critical approach. We offer an example of success in teaching and learning, through the implementation of Indigenous pedagogical practices (experiential and social learning), and a narrative-based approach to implicitly convey the moral background of technical content. Ultimately, we wish to make students’ active participants in a future of trust and respect between Indigenous monitors and bio/archaeologists.
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